Thursday, April 05, 2007
A Light Switch for the Brain
By Emily Singer
Scientists can now turn on and off specific parts of the brain with a simple flash of colored light. The new molecular tool, developed by scientists at MIT and Stanford, allows unprecedented control over the brain and could lead to more-effective treatments for epilepsy, Parkinson's, and other diseases. It could also help neuroscientists crack the language of the brain: the information encoded in the electrical activity of neurons, which forms our memories and directs our every move.
"In many ways, I think it's going to revolutionize the field," says Michael Hausser, a neuroscientist at University College London who wrote a commentary accompanying the research, published today in Nature and last month in Public Library of Science One. "It could replace the stimulating electrode, which has been the main tool for neurophysiologists for the last 100 years. It could also improve clinical applications where implanted electrodes have been shown to be useful by targeting excitation or inhibition to specific cells."
Neurons encode information with a series of electrical pulses transmitted between cells. Neuroscientists have traditionally studied the function of brain cells by sending jolts of electricity delivered by an electrode, which sparks activity in neurons. However, it's difficult to target that activity to a specific type of cell, and there is no corresponding treatment to turn off cells.
Last year, Karl Deisseroth, a bioengineer and physician at Stanford, and Ed Boyden, a bioengineer at MIT, co-opted a light-sensitive channel from jellyfish to create a genetic "on" switch. The channel sits on the cell membrane and opens when exposed to light, allowing positive charge to flow into the cell. Shining light on neurons that are genetically engineered to carry the channel triggers electrical activity within the cell that then spreads to the next neuron in the circuit. (Scientists use optical fibers to shine light into the brain.)
Deisseroth and Boyden have now independently created an "off" switch that works by a similar mechanism. This time the scientists used a gene that codes for a protein pump: when hit with yellow light, it pumps negative charge into the cell, blocking that neuron from firing. Both switches can be used in the same cell, effectively giving neuroscientists a light switch that can be used to turn on and off neural activity.
This newfound ability to precisely control neurons could finally bring answers to major questions about the brain. It might help scientists find the specific cells or neural activity patterns that are involved in cognitive processes, such as attention, or in particular diseases, such as epilepsy.